gastric surgery

Bariatric Surgery | Gastric Bypass Surgery | Gastric Banding | Obesity | After Surgery

Obesity Treatment and Facts

Obesity is a condition in which excessive fat is accumulated in body tissues, usually 20% above the recommended weight for height and age of a person. Obesity affects approximately 60 million people in America , nearly 1/3 of all the adult population, which consider using traditional and surgical methods to reduce overweight, such as gastric bypass surgery.

It is estimated that obese Americans have increased their number in the statistics since 1960. This increasing pattern has remained steady since then and actual trends for bodybuilding and thin body shape, has not reduced or slowed down the figures during the 21st century, even though gastric bypass surgery, lap banding and other bariatric procedures became popular.

Recent figures show that about 127 million Americans are considered either obese or overweight. This is about 64.5% of the adult population, a factor that contributes significantly to approximately 300,000 deaths each year, in the United States . Considering gastric bypass surgery and other procedures and methods to reduce weight, associated health-care costs represent approximately $100 billion.

However, some of those weight reducing methods cause associated complications and health risks leading to other conditions that increase mortality figures, particularly high blood pressure, a condition that occurs more often in obese individuals, remaining undetected and untreated indefinitely, causing heart disease, stroke and eventually death.

Procedures such as gastric bypass surgery are at risk of developing nutritional deficiencies leading to other health problems, as well as complications resulting from the procedure, including band erosion, pouch stretching, breakdown of staple lines, and even leakage of stomach contents into the abdomen.

Obesity sometimes is associated to racial factors. In America obesity occurs at higher rates in the African American and Hispanic American population, in comparison with Caucasian Americans and Asian Americans. Obesity is also more often seen within the minority populations, affecting a higher number of women and people of low socioeconomic status.

Low income means fewer opportunities to reduce overweight, because traditional treatments such as diet and exercise usually fail in the treatment of obesity. Bariatric procedures are recommended then, but a person with a low income cannot afford a gastric bypass surgery or any other bariatric treatment.

Whether tradition or surgical procedures to reduce weight it represents a nutritional risk, particularly when the treatment limits the absorption of vitamin B12 and iron, causing anemia, a condition that becoming acute is a contributing cause of death. Gastric bypass surgery and other bariatric procedures are often associated to anemia, when patients skip nutritional supplements in their diets.

Reduce Weight by Reducing Your Stomach

Treatment of morbid obesity not only reduces your weight, but also decreases your chances to develop high-risk conditions, including diabetes and high blood pressure that leads to heart attack, stroke and death. Gastric bypass surgery is a convenient method getting back your ideal weight.

Bariatric procedures use different techniques to restrict your food intake by reducing the size of your stomach, creating a smaller pouch able to hold the equivalent of one cup of food, after which a sensation of fullness avoids you to continue over eating. Doing it may cause nausea and vomiting.

With gastric bypass surgery, you will not only have a small stomach pouch created, but the procedure will also bypasses segments of the small intestine to cause intentional malabsorption, decreasing the ability to absorb calories and nutrients from food. Gastric bypass, as other bariatric procedures, require nutritional supplements and vitamins to compensate against malabsorption.

There are basically two different gastric bypass procedures: roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RGB) and Extensive gastric bypass surgery (biliopancreatic diversion). Between them, roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most common procedure performed in the United States , with approximately 140,000 gastric bypass procedures a year.

The procedure creates a new small pouch by stapling part of the stomach together or by vertical banding. Gastric bypass surgery attaches a Y-shaped section of the small intestine to the stomach pouch, allowing foods to bypass the duodenum and the first portion of the jejunum, reducing the absorption of calories, but also rejecting some the absorption of basic nutrients.

Laparoscope procedure is actually performed in many patients, being convenient and receiving a more rapid recovery time after surgery. People who undergo roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery generally lose 2/3% of their excess weight within 2 years, getting the ideal weight between 4 to 5 years while keeping with their diet and follow-up routines.

Extensive gastric bypass is the other gastric bypass surgery performed with the same goal, but more complicated because the lower portion of the stomach is permanently removed, and the pouch that remains is connected directly to the final segment of the small intestine, increasing the risk for higher nutritional deficiencies.

The extensive gastric procedure completely bypasses the duodenum and jejunum, from where the digestive system takes calories and nutrients. All bariatric procedures, including gastric bypass surgery, have the potential risks of malnutrition, so the prescription of dietary supplements, multi-vitamins and minerals always accompany them, as part of a lifelong aftercare.

Gastric Bypass Illustration